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Table 1 Study population characteristics

From: Systematic review of gut microbiota and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

No. Study Country Total of samples Agec Diagnostic tool
ADHD Control
1 Aarts et al. [12] Netherlands 19 ADHD, 77 controlsa 19.5 27.1 K-SADS based on DSM-IV
2 Jiang et al. [9] China (Zhejiang) 51 ADHD, 32 controls 8.47 8.5 K-SADS-PL based on DSM-IV
3 Prehn-Kristensen et al. [14] Germany 14 ADHDb, 17 controlsb 11.9 13.1 K-SADS-PL (Germany translation) based on DSM-IV
4 Wang et al. [10] China (Taiwan) 30 ADHD, 30 controls 8.4 9.3 K-SADS-E (China version) based on DSM-IV-TR
5 Wan et al. [11] China (Beijing) 17 ADHD, 17 controls 8 (median) 8 (median) K-SADS based on DSM-5
6 Szopinska-Tokov et al. [13] Netherlands 41 ADHD, 15 subthreshold ADHD, 47 controls ADHD = 20,2; subthreshold ADHD = 20,2 20.5 K-SADS based on DSM-IV
  1. aControl samples consists of 17 healthy participants, 21 healthy siblings of ADHD patients, and 39 self-reported healthy participants diagnosed by Brain Imaging Genetics (BIG)
  2. bAll the samples are from male participants. ADHD samples consists of 12 participants with combination type and 2 participants with inattention; 6 patients out of 14 have ODD comorbidities; and 10 patients had been consuming ADHD medication for more than a year to treat ADHD (nine of them had agreed to stop the consumption 48 h prior to samples collection)
  3. cThe data are displayed in mean