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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Effectiveness of acupuncture on anxiety disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Author (year, location) Age (years)
mean (SD)
Gender
M/F
Number of subjects
(I/C)
Diagnosis Intervention methods & delivery
(treated acupoints)
Type of control Outcome measures used for meta-analysis Report of side effect
Che,
(2015, China)
43.2
(7.8)
32/48 80
(40/40)
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 6 weeks
Acupoints: Baihui, Shangxing, Shenting, Shuigou, Tanzhong, Juque, and Zhongwan
Medication:
Paroxetine
20 mg/d,
6 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) TESS
I: 6 cases
C: 12 cases
Cheng et al. (2018, China) I:
36.5
(8.6)
C: 35.8
(7.9)
I:
19/14
C: 20/13
66
(33/33)
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture plus medication (Buspirone, same dose with control)
Duration: 4 Weeks
Acupoints: Baihui, Sishencong, Touwei, Shenmen, Neiguan, Shousanli, Sanyinjiao, and Yanglingquan
Medication:
Buspirone
20 mg-30 mg/d
4 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) NR
Li et al. (2015, China) I:
67(6.4)
C:
69 (8.7)
I:
15/6
C:
17/7
45
21/24
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 6 weeks
Aucpoints: Laogong, Hegu, Neiguan, Shenmen, and Sanyinjiao
Medication:
Lorazepam, 1.5 -3 mg/d
Duration: 6 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) I < C
Liu et al. (2007, China) 38.48
(15.80)
30/56 86
29/28/29
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 6 weeks
Acupoints: Sishenzhen, Dingsehnzhen, Neiguan, Shenmen, and Sanyinjiao
C1*: medication:
Paroxetine,
20 mg/d or fluoxetine
20 mg/d; or Alprazolam 0.4–1.6 mg/d
C2: Acupuncture plus medication (dose same with C1)
Anxiety (HAMA) TESS
I < C2 < C1
Mak et al. 2019
(Hongkong, China)
I:
50.85 (11.57)
C:
50.83 (14.15)
I: 20/20
C: 18/22
80
40/40
GAD
(DSM-5)
Electroacupuncture
Duration: 10 weeks
Acupoint pairs: bilateral Neiguan and Shenmen, bilateral Zusanli and Shangjuxu, bilateral
Sanyinjiao and LR3Taichong, and left Baihui and Yintang
Sham electroacupuncture;
Utilize same acupoints with intervention group
Duration: 10 weeks
Anxiety (7-item Patient Health Questionnaire section for anxiety);
Depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9)
NR
Wang et al. (2003, China) I:
38.2
(9.4)
C:
35.7
(8.8)
I:
7/13
C:
8/11
39
20/19
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Electroacupuncture
Duration: 6 weeks
Acupoints: Yintang, Baihui, Xuanlu, and Fengchi
Medication:
Trazodone Hydrochloride,
100–150 mg/d,
Duration: 6 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA);
Depression (SDS)
NR
Wang et al. (2005, China) NR NR 65
35/30
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 30 days
Acupoints: Yintang, Baihui, Neiguan, Shenmen, Tanzhong, and Sanyinjiao
Medication:
Clomipram 0.5–2 mg, twice or three times a day, supplemented with Oryzanol 20 mg, three times a day, or Propranolol 10–20 mg, three times a day;
Duration: 30 days
Anxiety (SAS) NR
Wang (2007, China) I,
18–63
C:
18–64
I:
9/12
C:
8/12
41
21/20
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 30 days
Acupoints: Bihui, Yintang, Shenmen, and Sanyinjiao
Medication:
Deanxit,
2 tablets /d;
Duration: 30 days
Anxiety (HAMA) NR
Wang et al. (2010, China) 28–65 I:
11/19
C:
9/21
60
30/30
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 3 weeks
Acupoints: Xinyu, Ganyu, Danyu, Geyu, and Shenyu
Medication: Alprazolam,
0.4–0.8 mg/d
Duration: 3 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) NR
Xiong,
(2013, China)
16–55 32/39 71
36/35
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 30 days
Acupoints: Guanyuan, Zhongwan, Zhenwei, Tanzhong, Chengjiang, Baihui, Shenting, Fengfu, Dazhui, Zhiyang, and Mingmen
Medication: Deanxit,
2 tablets /d; and
Oryzanol 30 mg/d
Duration: 30 days
Anxiety (SAS) NR
Xu et al. (2012, China) I:
38(7.5)
C:
39(8.4)
I:
12/20
C:
10/20
62
32/30
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture plus Chinese traditional medicine (dose was the same with the control group)
Duration: 6 weeks
Acupoints: Baihui, Sishencong, Yinquexue, Neiguan, Sanyinjiao, Hegu, and Taichong
Chinese traditional medicine:
Shugan Qingre recipe: Chaihu, Huaimai, liquorice, rose, cicada clothing, and Scutellaria;
One dose/d;
Duration: 6 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) NR
Xu et al. (2016, China) I,
25–60
C:
23–61
I:
14/16
C:
18/12
60
30/30
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture (Yu's scalp needle)
Duration: 4 weeks
Acupoint: the emotional areas, which are from the fontanelle to the shenting and its parallel lines of 1 inch and 2 inch to the left and right, respectively
Medication:
Buspirone,
20–40 mg/d,
4 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) NR
Yan (2018, China) I,
42.5
(4.2)
C:
42.2
(4.0)
I:
13/17
C:
11/19
60
30/30
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture combined with self-acupoint massage
Duration: 1 month
Acupoints: Minghuangxue, Tianhuangxue, Qihuangxue, Baihui, and Yintang
Self-acupoint massage therapy:
To press Fengchi point with both thumbs, temple point with left thumbs, Zhongwan point, Neiguan point, Qihai point, Tanzhong point with right thumbs, Baihui Point with right middle fingers. All the above acupoints were massaged by finger
Duration: 1 month
Anxiety (HAMA) NR
Zhang (2001, China) 16–60 160/130 296
157/139
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 30 days
Acupoints: Baihui, Neiguan, Renzhong, Sanyinjiao, and Beiyu
Medication:
Doxepin, 150 mg/d;
Duration: 30 days
Anxiety (SAS) NR
Zhang et al. (2010, China) I:
45.69
(5.54)
C:
46.90
(5.89)
I:83/103
C:61/103
325
186/139
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 4 weeks
Acupoints: Three Huang Points of DONG’s
extra-points (Minghuang, Tianhuang and
Qihuang)
Medication:
Buspirone, 15 mg/d;
Duration: 4 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) I:1.6%
C:33.8%
Zhao et al. (2014, China) I:
42.31
(8.44)
C:
41.5
(7.89)
I: 11/19
C: 13/17
60
30/30
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 6 weeks
Acupoints: Sishen, Congtou, Baihui, Shenting, Shuigou, Bneshen, Fengchi (bilateral), Neiguan (bilateral), and Shenmen (bilateral)
Medication:
Fluoxetine, 20 mg/d;
Duration: 6 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) TESS
I: 2 cases
C: 8 cases
Zhao et al. (2018, China) I:
42.59
(8.17)
C:
43.31
(7.96)
I:20/35
C:23/36
112
53/59
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 6 weeks
Acupoints: Yintang, Baihuim Fengchi, Neiguan, Sanyinjiao, and Taichong
Medication:
Buspirone,
15 mg/d;
Duration: 6 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) I: 3 cases
C: 9 cases
Zheng et al. (2004, China) I:
35 (5.2)
C:
34(6.1)
I: 13/45
C:15/35
108
58/50
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 8 weeks
Acupoints: Xinyu, Jueyinyu, Baihui, Shenting, and Shenmen
Medication:
Alprazolam,
0.4–0.8 mg/d;
Duration: 8 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) I < C
Zheng et al. (2014, China) I:
17–56
C:
22–53
I: 12/18
C: 9/21
60
30/30
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 4 weeks
Acupoints: Xinyu, Jueyinyu, Feiyu, Ganyu, Danyu,Weiyu, Piyu, Sanjiaoyu, Shenyu, and Baihui
Auricular point sticking therapy:
Duration: 4 weeks
Anxiety (SAS) NR
Zhou et al. (2013, China) I:
38 (8)
C:
38 (10)
I: 16/24
C18/22
80
40/40
GAD
(CCMD-3)
Acupuncture
Duration: 6 weeks
Acupoints: Lieque, Hegu, Shenmen, Houxi, Waiguan, laogong, Yongquan, Zhibian, Yinlingquan, Zusanli, Taichong, and Yanglingquan
Medication:
Clonazepam,
4–8 mg/d;
Duration: 6 weeks
Anxiety (HAMA) NR
  1. I intervention, C control, NR Not Reported, CCMD-3 Chinese standard for mental disorders and diagnosis (3rd Edition), DSM the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, GAD generalized anxiety disorder, HAMA Hamilton anxiety scale, HAMD Hamilton depression scale, SAS self-rating anxiety scale, SDS self-rating depression scale, HSCL-25 self-rated Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25
  2. *Selected as control group for those studies with two control groups