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Table 2 Validity of the screening methods relative to the PHQ-8 MDD classification (n = 129)

From: Sequential screening for depression in humanitarian emergencies: a validation study of the Patient Health Questionnaire among Syrian refugees

Screening methodMajor depressive disorderaSystematic error
p-value
Cohen’s kappa (95% CI)Validity indicesb
+TotalOverall agreement % (95% CI)Positive agreement % (95% CI)Negative agreement % (95% CI)AUCPPV (%)NPV (%)
PHQ-2   0.0000.42 (0.26–0.57)68 (59–76)89 (78–96)50 (38–62)0.696183
 Positive543488        
 Negative73441        
 Total6168129        
PHQ-2/8 sequential screening   0.0080.70 (0.55–0.80)95 (89–98)89 (78–96)100 (95–100)0.9410091
 Positive54054        
 Negative76875        
 Total6168129        
  1. PHQ-2 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, AUC area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic analysis, PPV positive-predictive value, NPV negative-predictive value
  2. McNemar’s test
  3. aRespondents were defined as having major depressive disorder if they had a positive result on the PHQ-8
  4. bPositive and negative percent agreement (PPA and NPA, respectively) were calculated as proxy measures of sensitivity and specificity, consistent with recommendations for comparisons with imperfect reference standards [37]