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Table 4 Multilevel logistic regression model: variables associated with involuntary admission (inpatient episodes sample: n = 7881)

From: Factors associated with involuntary admissions: a register-based cross-sectional multicenter study

Characteristics Involuntary admission n = 715 Voluntary admission n = 7166 Overall n = 7881 COR (95% CI)1 p-value AOR (95% CI)2 nn= 7047 p-value
n(%) n(%) n(%)
Physical restraint
 No 519 (72.6) 6800 (94.9) 7319 (92.9) 1   1  
 Yes 196 (27.4) 366 (5.1) 562 (7.1) 12.96 (10.24–16.41)  < 0.001 11.58 (8.90–15.07)  < 0.001
Main diagnosis at discharge
 Mood disorders 148 (20.7) 2375 (33.2) 2523 (32.1) 1   1  
 Schizophrenia 375 (52.4) 2226 (31.2) 2601 (33.1) 2.89 (2.35–3.55)  < 0.001 2.68 (2.13–3.36)  < 0.001
 Personality disorders 84 (11.8) 1333 (18.7) 1417 (18.0) 1.02 (0.77–1.36) 0.880 0.98 (0.71–1.36) 0.919
 Substance use disorders 34 (4.8) 212 (3.0) 246 (3.1) 3.04 (2.00–4.64)  < 0.001 2.60 (1.64–4.14)  < 0.001
 Othersc 74 (10.3) 996 (13.9) 1070 (13.6) 1.11 (0.82–1.51) 0.501 0.94 (0.68–1.31) 0.722
Length of hospitalization (days)
 Mean ± SD 15.8 ± 13.5 12.0 ± 11.3 12.3 ± 11.6 1.03 (1.02–1.04)  < 0.001 1.02 (1.01–1.03)  < 0.001
Number of hospitalizations
 One 608 (85.0) 5410 (75.5) 6018 (76.4) 1   1  
 Two 72 (10.1) 1094 (15.3) 1166 (14.8) 0.63 (0.49–0.82)  < 0.001 0.52 (0.39–0.69)  < 0.001
 Three 17 (2.4) 366 (5.1) 383 (4.9) 0.46 (0.28–0.76) 0.002 0.34 (0.20–0.58)  < 0.001
 Four or more 18 (2.5) 296 (4.1) 314 (4.0) 0.58 (0.36–0.95) 0.032 0.39 (0.23–0.67) 0.001
  1. aCOR Crude Odds Ratios
  2. bAOR Adjusted Odds Ratios (adjusted for age, gender and nationality)
  3. cDementias; pervasive developmental disorders; anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders; adjustment reactions; acute reactions of stress