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Table 3 Clinical variables, hospital/psychiatric ward characteristics, and seasons of the year associated with involuntary or voluntary admissions: inpatient episodes sample (n = 7881)

From: Factors associated with involuntary admissions: a register-based cross-sectional multicenter study

Characteristics Involuntary admission n = 715 n(%) Voluntary admission n = 7166 n(%) Overall n = 7881 n (%) Stat
χ2 / t d.f p
Access mode 41.72 5  < 0.001
 Picked up by ambulance 250 (43.4)a 1751 (31.1) 2001 (32.2)
 Referred to emergency room 290 (50.3) 3470 (61.6)a 3760 (60.5)
 Transferred from Intensive Short Observation Unit 1 (0.2) 34 (0.6) 35 (0.6)
 Transferred from other ward (same hospital) 0 (0.0) 27 (0.5) 27 (0.4)
 Transferred from other hospital (public health system) 34 (5.9) 320 (5.6) 354 (5.8)
 Transferred from other health facilities (private) 1 (0.2) 33 (0.6) 34 (0.5)
Main diagnosis at the entrance (diagnostic macro areas) 241.048 9  < 0.001
 Psychosis 263 (60.3)a 1532 (34.7) 1795 (37.0)
 Depressive anxious syndrome 23 (5.3) 1304 (29.5) 1327 (27.4)
 Manic episode 44 (10.1)a 223 (5.1) 267 (5.5)
 Personality disorder 8 (1.8) 121 (2.7) 129 (2.7)
 Obsessive–compulsive disorder 4 (0.9) 45 (1.0) 49 (1.0)
 Alcohol use disorder 15 (3.4) 483 (10.9) 497 (10.2)
 Substance use disorder 0 (0.0) 21 (0.5) 21 (0.4)
 Suicide attempt 9 (2.1) 302 (6.8) 311 (6.4)
 Abnormal behavior 68 (15.6)a 349 (7.9) 417 (8.6)
 Psych. disorders due to medical condition 2 (0.5) 35 (0.8) 37 (0.8)
Discharge (type) 6.071 4 0.415
 At home 567 (78.2) 5499 (77.2) 6066 (77.3)
 Long-term care facility 80 (11.2) 975 (13.7) 1055 (13.5)
 Other psychiatric ward (different hospital) 54 (7.6) 480 (6.7) 534 (6.8)
 Therapeutic community 19 (2.7) 149 (2.1) 168 (2.1)
 Other ward of the hospital 2 (0.3) 23 (0.3) 25 (0.3)
Hospital location 3.565 1 0.061
 City of Torino/first belt (n = 6) 166 (23.2) 1897 (26.5) 2063 (26.2)
 Other cities (n = 17) 549 (76.8) 5269 (73.5) 5818 (73.8)
Hospital of densely populated areas (> 50,000 inhabitants) 2.663 1 0.108
 Yes (n = 8) 365 (51.0) 3429 (47.9) 3794 (48.1)
 No (n = 15) 350 (49.0) 3737 (52.1) 4087 (51.9)
Hospital beds per psychiatric ward 1.451 1 0.228
 > 10 560 (78.3) 5469 (76.3) 6029 (76.5)
 ≤ 10 155 (21.7) 1697 (23.7) 1852 (23.5)
Seasons of the year 4.271 1 0.234
 Winter 177 (24.8) 1814 (25.3) 1991 (25.3)
 Spring 201 (28.1) 1783 (24.9) 1984 (25.2)
 Summer 186 (26.0) 1885 (26.3) 2071 (26.3)
 Fall 151 (21.1) 1678 (23.4) 1829 (23.2)
  1. aStatistically significant (Bonferroni correction)