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Table 2 Multilevel logistic regression model: variables associated with involuntary admission (patients sample: n = 6018)

From: Factors associated with involuntary admissions: a register-based cross-sectional multicenter study

Characteristics Involuntary admission n = 608 Voluntary admission n = 5410 Overall n = 6018 COR (95% CI)a p-value AOR (95% CI)b
n = 5382
p-value
n(%) n(%) n(%)
Age (years)
 Mean ± SD 43.4 ± 15.2 46.9 ± 15.7 46.5 ± 15.7 0.99 (0.98–0.99)  < 0.001 0.99 (0.98–0.99) 0.003
Gender
 Female 245 (40.7) 2757 (51.1) 3002 (50.1) 1   1  
 Male 357 (59.3) 2638 (48.9) 2995 (49.9) 1.56 (1.31–1.86)  < 0.001 1.19 (0.97–1.45) 0.089
Nationality
 Italian 533 (88.2) 4689 (91.9) 5222 (91.6) 1   1  
 EU citizens 24 (4.0) 165 (3.2) 189 (3.3) 1.22 (0.78–1.90) 0.392 0.82 (0.50–1.37) 0.458
 Non-EU citizens 47 (7.8) 246 (4.8) 293 (5.1) 1.68 (1.20–2.36) 0.002 1.16 (0.78–1.72) 0.476
Physical restraint
 No 446 (73.4) 5159 (95.4) 5605 (93.1) 1   1  
 Yes 162 (26.6) 251 (4.6) 413 (6.9) 14.14 (10.81–18.51)  < 0.001 12.57 (9.35–16.91)  < 0.001
Main diagnosis at discharge
 Mood disorders 133 (21.9) 1859 (34.5) 1992 (33.2) 1   1  
 Schizophrenia 316 (52.0) 1609 (29.9) 1925 (32.1) 2.94 (2.36–3.66)  < 0.001 2.65 (2.07–3.38)  < 0.001
 Personality disorders 65 (10.7) 929 (17.2) 994 (16.6) 1.02 (0.74–1.39) 0.925 0.92 (0.64–1.31) 0.637
 Substance use disorders 30 (4.9) 165 (3.1) 195 (3.2) 2.88 (1.83–4.52)  < 0.001 2.51 (1.53–4.13)  < 0.001
 Othersc 64 (10.5) 827 (15.3) 891 (14.9) 1.07 (0.77–1.48) 0.701 0.92 (0.65–1.31) 0.644
Length of hospitalization (days)
 Mean ± SD 15.1 ± 11.6 11.8 ± 11.1 12.2 ± 11.2 1.02 (1.02–1.03)  < 0.001 1.02 (1.01–1.03)  < 0.001
  1. aCOR Crude Odds Ratios
  2. bAOR Adjusted Odds Ratios
  3. cDementias; pervasive developmental disorders; anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders; adjustment reactions; acute reactions of stress