Skip to main content

Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical data: recruited patients sample (n = 6018)

From: Factors associated with involuntary admissions: a register-based cross-sectional multicenter study

Characteristics Involuntary admission n  = 608 n (%) Voluntary admission n  = 5410 n (%) Overall n  = 6018 n (%) Stat
χ2 / t d.f p
Marital status 13.933 3 0.003
 Married 87 (25.5) 1024 (33.2)a 1111 (32.5)
 Widow 12 (3.5) 135 (4.4) 147 (4.3)
 Divorced 28 (8.2) 316 (10.3) 344 (10.0)
 Single 214 (62.8)a 1607 (52.1) 1821 (53.2)
Educational level 4.132 5 0.634
 None 9 (3.5) 85 (3.4) 94 (3.4)
 Primary school 29 (11.3) 275 (10.9) 304 (10.9)
 Secondary school 122 (47.5) 1180 (46.6) 1302 (46.7)
 High school 77 (30.0) 801 (31.7) 878 (31.5)
 University degree 4 (1.6) 36 (1.4) 40 (1.4)
 Major degree 16 (6.1) 153 (6.0) 169 (6.1)
Working status 15.43 5 0.009
 Unemployed 96 (32.0)a 734 (26.0) 830 (26.6)
 Employed 84 (28.0) 864 (30.5) 948 (30.3)
 Student 21 (7.0) 155 (5.5) 176 (5.6)
 Housewife 17 (5.7) 237 (8.4) 254 (8.1)
 Retired 28 (9.3) 418 (14.8)a 446 (14.3)
 Other (e.g. occasional work) 54 (18.0) 417 (14.8) 471 (15.1)
Access mode 40.027 5  < 0.001
 Picked up by ambulance 214 (44.1)a 1307 (30.9) 1521 (32.4)
 Referred to emergency room 239 (49.3) 2603 (61.6)a 2842 (60.4)
 Transferred from Intensive Short Observation Unit 1 (0.2) 20 (0.5) 21 (0.4)
 Transferred from other ward (same hospital) 0 (0.0) 21 (0.5) 21 (0.4)
 Transferred from other hospital (public health system) 31 (6.4) 254 (6.0) 285 (6.0)
 Transferred from other health facilities (private) 0 (0.0) 21 (0.5) 21 (0.4)
Main diagnosis at the entrance (diagnostic macro areas) 222.029 9  < 0.001
 Psychosis 220 (61.5)a 1128 (33.5) 1348 (36.2)
 Depressive anxious syndrome 15 (4.2) 1040 (30.9)a 1055 (28.3)
 Manic episode 36 (10.1)a 171 (5.1) 207 (5.6)
 Personality disorder 10 (2.8) 326 (9.7)a 336 (9.0)
 Obsessive–compulsive disorder 0 (0.0) 16 (0.5) 16 (0.4)
 Alcohol use disorder 7 (2.0) 87 (2.6) 94 (2.5)
 Substance use disorder 3 (0.8) 36 (1.1) 39 (1.0)
 Suicide attempt 8 (2.2) 259 (7.7)a 267 (7.2)
 Abnormal behavior 57 (15.9)a 270 (8.0) 327 (8.8)
 Psych. disorders due to medical condition 2 (0.6) 32 (1.0) 34 (0.9)
Discharge (type) 4.721 4 0.580
 At home 473 (78.1) 4120 (76.5) 4593 (76.7)
 Long-term care facility 65 (10.8) 719 (13.4) 784 (13.0)
 Other psychiatric ward (different hospital) 47 (7.8) 405 (7.5) 452 (7.6)
 Therapeutic community 18 (3.0) 118 (2.2) 136 (2.3)
 Other ward of the hospital 2 (0.3) 19 (0.4) 21 (0.4)
Main diagnosis at discharge (ICD-9-CM codes) 304.885 19  < 0.001
 Dementias (290) 10 (1.6) 47 (0.9) 57 (1.0)
 Alcohol-induced mental disorders (291) 3 (0.5) 15 (0.3) 18 (0.3)
 Drug-induced mental disorders (292) 6 (1.0) 32 (0.6) 38 (0.6)
 Schizophrenic disorders (295) 156 (25.7)a 931 (17.3) 1087 (18.1)
 Episodic mood disorders (296) 103 (16.9)a 591 (9.3) 604 (0.1)
  Manic/mixed episodes 1 (0.2) 210 (3.9)a 211 (3.5)
  Bipolar depression 14 (2.3) 245 (4.5)a 259 (4.3)
  Bipolar disorder NOS 6 (1.0) 185 (3.4)a 191 (3.2)
  Mood disorders NOS 9 (1.5) 718 (13.3)a 727 (12.1)
  Unipolar depression 37 (6.1)a 116 (2.2) 153 (2.6)
 Delusional disorders (297) 123 (20.2)a 562 (10.4) 685 (11.4)
 Other nonorganic psychoses (298) 16 (2.6)a 58 (1.1) 74 (1.2)
Pervasive developmental disorders (299)
 Anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders (300) 2 (0.3) 132 (2.4)a 134 (2.2)
 Personality disorders (301) 65 (10.7) 929 (17.2)a 994 (16.6)
 Alcohol dependence (303) 22 (3.6)a 91 (1.7) 113 (1.9)
 Substance dependence (304) 3 (0.5)
3 (0.5)
3 (0.5) 20 (0.3)
 Nondependent abuse of drugs (305) 5 (0.8) 57 (1.1) 62 (1.0)
 Acute reaction of stress (308) 6 (1.0) 114 (2.1) 120 (2.0)
 Adjustment reaction (309) 4 (0.7) 103 (1.9)a 107 (1.8)
 Others 17 (2.8) 326 (6.0)a 343 (5.7)
  1. aStatistically significant (Bonferroni correction)