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Table 1 Major characteristics of studies: the prevalence of prenatal and postpartum depression

From: Prevalence of perinatal depression among Japanese women: a meta-analysis

Author, year Time classification Measure Sample size Identified cases Prevalence (%)
Akiyama 2014 [45] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 936 324 34.6
Amagai 2014 [46] Third trimester EPDS 151 33 21.9
Arai 2009 [47] 1-month postpartum EPDS 149 33 22.1
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 149 33 22.1
Arakawa 2016 [48] 1-month postpartum EPDS 257 23 8.9
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 253 36 14.2
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 289 26 9.0
Arimoto 2010 [49] 1-month postpartum EPDS 276 66 23.9
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 276 66 23.9
Doi 2015 [50] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 100 20 20.0
Ebine 2007 [51] 1-month postpartum EPDS 691 131 19.0
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 691 131 19.0
Emori 2014 [52] Third trimester EPDS 110 20 18.2
Fujita 2007 [54] 1-month postpartum EPDS 1869 222 11.9
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 1869 222 11.9
Fujita 2015 [53] 1-month postpartum EPDS 179 38 21.2
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 179 38 21.2
Fukuda 2011 [55] 1-month postpartum EPDS 299 57 19.1
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 299 57 19.1
Fukuzawa 2003 [56] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 194 25 12.9
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 194 10 5.2
Fukuzawa 2004 [57] 1-month postpartum EPDS 664 31 4.7
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 664 72 10.8
Fukuzawa 2006 [58] 1-month postpartum EPDS 356 17 4.8
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 356 32 9.0
Fukuzawa 2011 [59] 1-month postpartum EPDS 135 8 5.9
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 135 13 9.6
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 135 11 8.1
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 135 13 9.6
6- to 12-month postpartum EPDS 135 13 9.6
Goto 2010 [60] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 378 32 8.5
Hamazaki 2009 [61] 1-month postpartum EPDS 986 91 9.2
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 986 91 9.2
Harada 2008 [62] 1-month postpartum EPDS 820 68 8.3
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 820 68 8.3
Harada 2009 [63] 1-month postpartum EPDS 143 18 12.6
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 143 20 14.0
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 143 12 8.4
Hashimoto 2014 [64] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 1222 102 8.3
Honda 2008 [65] 1-month postpartum EPDS 230 31 13.5
  0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 230 31 13.5
Hori 2006 [66] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 217 29 13.4
Hosoya 2006 [67] 1-month postpartum EPDS 204 33 16.2
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 204 33 16.2
Hozumi 2005 [68] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 110 16 14.5
Ichikawa 2008 [69] 1-month postpartum EPDS 152 29 19.1
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 152 29 19.1
Imura 2004 [70] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 102 21 20.6
Ishii 2010 [71] 1-month postpartum EPDS 109 4 3.7
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 109 6 5.5
Ishikawa 2011 [72] Third trimester EPDS 424 48 11.3
Iwafuji 2007 [73] 3- to 6-month postpartum CES-D 129 13 10.1
6- to 12-month postpartum CES-D 129 20 15.5
Iwamoto 2010 [74] 1-month postpartum EPDS 590 30 5.1
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 590 65 11.0
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 560 41 7.3
Third trimester EPDS 590 101 17.1
Iwata 2016 [75] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 2854 437 15.3
Iwata 2016 [76] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 2709 261 9.6
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 2709 222 8.2
Kanai 2016 [77] 1-month postpartum EPDS 113 8 7.1
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 113 8 7.1
Kanazawa 2008 [78] 1-month postpartum EPDS 111 16 14.4
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 111 16 14.4
Kaneko 2008 [79] 1-month postpartum EPDS 103 15 14.6
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 103 15 14.6
Second trimester EPDS 103 13 12.6
Kawai 2017 [80] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 951 115 12.1
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 951 47 4.9
6- to 12-month postpartum EPDS 951 40 4.2
Kawamura 2006 [81] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 506 100 19.8
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 2283 226 9.9
Kikuchi 2010 [83] 1-month postpartum EPDS 113 17 15.0
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 113 17 15.0
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 113 17 15.0
Kinjo 2011 [84] 1-month postpartum EPDS 152 39 25.7
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 152 39 25.7
Kinjo 2013 [85] 1- to 3-month postpartum CES-D 289 96 33.2
Second trimester CES-D 320 100 31.3
Kishi 2009 [86] 1-month postpartum EPDS 160 20 12.5
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 160 20 12.5
Kobayashi 2017 [10] 1-month postpartum EPDS 967 191 19.8
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 967 191 19.8
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 710 91 12.8
Kondo 2011 [88] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 129 14 10.9
Kubota 2014 [89] 1-month postpartum EPDS 690 127 18.4
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 690 127 18.4
Maruyama 2012 [106] 1-month postpartum EPDS 143 36 25.2
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 143 36 25.2
Masuda 2012 [90] 1-month postpartum EPDS 595 89 15.0
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 595 89 15.0
Matsukida 2009 [91] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 1240 102 8.2
Matsuoka 2010 [93] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 508 69 13.6
Matsuzaki 2009 [94] 1-month postpartum EPDS 443 40 9.0
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 436 37 8.5
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 154 13 8.4
Mishina 2009 [95] 1-month postpartum EPDS 103 17 16.5
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 103 17 16.5
Mishina 2010 [96] 1-month postpartum EPDS 279 43 15.4
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 279 43 15.4
Mishina 2012 [97] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 631 87 13.8
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 1621 182 11.2
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 312 41 13.1
Mitamura 2008 [98] 1-month postpartum EPDS 503 40 8.0
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 503 40 8.0
Miyake 2011[100] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 771 106 13.7
Miyake 2016 [99] 3- to 6-month postpartum CES-D 1319 108 8.2
Miyauchi 2014 [102] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 410 31 7.6
Mori 2017 [104] 1-month postpartum EPDS 2854 437 15.3
Morikawa 2015 [105] Second trimester EPDS 371 68 18.3
Muchanga 2017 [9] 1-month postpartum EPDS 82,489 11,341 13.7
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 82,489 11,341 13.7
Murayama 2010 [107] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 230 23 10.0
Nagatsuru 2006 [108] 1-month postpartum EPDS 252 62 24.6
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 252 62 24.6
Nakaita 2012 [109] 1-month postpartum EPDS 1744 233 13.4
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 1744 233 13.4
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 2364 286 12.1
Nakamura 2015 [12] 1-month postpartum EPDS 215 19 8.8
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 215 19 8.8
Nakano 2004 [110] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 169 29 17.2
Ngoma 2012 [111] 1-month postpartum EPDS 117 7 6.0
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 117 7 6.0
Nishigori 2015 [113] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 300 45 15.0
Nishihira 2011 [114] 1-month postpartum EPDS 179 24 13.4
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 179 24 13.4
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 100 13 13.0
Nishikawa 2006 [115] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 248 37 14.9
1-month postpartum EPDS 248 37 14.9
Nishimura 2010 [117] 1-month postpartum EPDS 178 50 28.1
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 178 50 28.1
Nishimura 2015 [116] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 807 83 10.3
Nishioka 2011 [118] 1-month postpartum EPDS 405 79 19.5
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 405 79 19.5
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 653 53 8.1
Nishizono-Maher 2004 [119] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 693 96 13.9
Ogasawara 2000 [120] 1-month postpartum EPDS 161 7 4.3
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 161 7 4.3
Ono 2008 [122] 1-month postpartum EPDS 151 33 21.9
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 151 33 21.9
Ono 2009 [122] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 485 99 20.4
Otake 2014 [123] Third trimester EPDS 154 9 5.8
Sadatomi 2011 [124] 1-month postpartum EPDS 201 19 9.5
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 201 19 9.5
Sakae 2016 [125] 1-month postpartum EPDS 110 25 22.7
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 110 16 14.5
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 110 17 15.5
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 110 15 13.6
6- to 12-month postpartum EPDS 110 18 16.4
Third trimester EPDS 110 19 17.3
Sasaki 2007 [127] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 314 41 13.1
Sasaki 2012 [126] 1-month postpartum EPDS 314 49 15.6
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 314 49 15.6
Sato 2002 [130] 1-month postpartum EPDS 402 59 14.7
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 402 84 20.9
Sato 2006 [128] 1-month postpartum EPDS 189 32 16.9
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 189 37 19.6
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 189 27 14.3
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 103 13 12.6
Sato 2016 [129] 6- to 12-month postpartum EPDS 677 145 21.4
Satoh 2009 [131] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 177 42 23.7
Seki 2015 [132] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 336 71 21.1
Shin 2015 [133] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 167 18 10.8
Shiraishi 2015 [134] Second trimester EPDS 329 19 5.8
Shoji 2009 [135] 1-month postpartum EPDS 147 7 4.8
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 147 14 9.5
Suetsugu 2015 [136] 1-month postpartum EPDS 244 19 7.8
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 244 19 7.8
Sugimoto 2017 [137] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 2133 262 12.3
Sugishita 2013 [138] 1-month postpartum EPDS 121 24 19.8
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 121 24 19.8
Suzuki 2001 [139] 1-month postpartum EPDS 1864 275 14.8
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 1864 275 14.8
Suzuki 2010 [140] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 684 38 5.6
Suzumiya 2004 [141] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 780 150 19.2
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 2334 296 12.7
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 256 23 9.0
Tachibana 2015 [142] 1-month postpartum EPDS 1327 169 12.7
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 1327 169 12.7
Second trimester EPDS 1327 128 9.6
Takahashi 2014 [143] 1-month postpartum EPDS 100 10 10.0
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 100 10 10.0
Takehara 2009 [144] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 816 96 11.8
6- to 12-month postpartum EPDS 684 65 9.5
Takehara 2018 [145] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 1305 115 8.8
Tamaki 1997 [149] 1-month postpartum EPDS 627 114 18.2
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 627 114 18.2
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 627 76 12.1
Tamaki 1997 [148] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 2476 292 11.8
Tamaki 2007 [146] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 329 61 18.5
Tamaki 2008 [147] 1-month postpartum EPDS 361 66 18.3
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 361 66 18.3
Tomari 2012 [150] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 366 53 14.5
Tomimori 2011 [151] 1-month postpartum EPDS 271 43 15.9
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 198 32 16.2
Umezaki 2015 [152] 1-month postpartum EPDS 114 36 31.6
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 114 38 33.3
Urayama 2013 [153] 1-month postpartum EPDS 101 18 17.8
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 101 33 32.7
Usuda 2016 [154] 1-month postpartum EPDS 118 11 9.3
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 118 11 9.3
Usuda 2017 [29] Second trimester EPDS 2821 411 14.6
Usui 2013 [155] 1-month postpartum CES-D 142 41 28.9
0- to 1-month postpartum CES-D 142 41 28.9
Third trimester CES-D 142 39 27.5
Yamaguchi 2016 [156] 1-month postpartum EPDS 101 14 13.9
0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 101 20 19.8
1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 101 9 8.9
3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 101 13 12.9
Yamanaka 2012 [157] 1- to 3-month postpartum EPDS 786 81 10.3
Yamaoka 2016 [158] 3- to 6-month postpartum EPDS 6534 623 9.5
Yamazaki 2016 [161] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 363 67 18.5
Yamazaki 2017 [160] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 105 34 32.4
Yamasaki 2017 [159] 3- to 6-month postpartum CES-D 399 40 10.0
Yoshida 2017 [162] 0- to 1-month postpartum EPDS 276 38 13.8