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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study subgroups

From: Association between DRD2 and ANKK1 polymorphisms with the deficit syndrome in schizophrenia

Parameter DS NDS X2 Z p
Women n (%) 43 (42) 58 (61) 7.37   0.007
Age (years) mean ± SD (median) 41 ± 11 (40) 39 ± 11 (36)   − 1.46 0.143
Higher education n (%) 18 (17) 18 (19) 0.07   0.788
Cohabitation n (%) 32 (31) 29 (31) 0.01   0.934
Psychiatric illness in the family n (%) 41 (40) 33 (35) 0.46   0.496
Neurological illness in the family n (%) 17 (17) 13 (14) 0.27   0.603
Schizophrenia in the family n (%) 30 (29) 15 (16) 4.83   0.028
Duration of schizophrenia (years)
mean ± SD (median)
14 ± 9 (13) 13 ± 10 (10)   − 1.73 0.084
Age of onset (years) mean ± SD (median) 27 ± 8 (24) 26 ± 8 (24)   − 0.30 0.761
Time delay from onset to diagnosis n (%)
 < 1 month 49 (48) 48 (51)    
 1–6 months 23 (22) 21 (22) 0.22   0.897
 > 6 months 31 (30) 26 (27)    
Withdrawal of symptoms after neuroleptics n (%) 97 (94) 93 (98) 1.76   0.184
Number of psychiatric hospitalizations mean ± SD (median) 6.7 ± 5.8 (5) 6.4 ± 6.8 (4)   − 1.14 0.253
Longest episode (weeks) mean ± SD (median) 33 ± 62 (14) 19 ± 27 (12)   − 2.31 0.021
Clinical course n (%)    0.31   0.855
 Episodes of relapses and remissions 78 (76) 82 (86)
 Chronic course 10 (10) 8 (8)
 Chronic course with social withdrawal 14 (14) 5 (5)
MMSE mean ± SD (median) 28 ± 2 (28) 28 ± 2 (29)   2.29 0.022
PANSS mean ± SD (median)
 Total 42 ± 18 (41) 22 ± 19 (17)   − 7.08 < 0.001
 Positive 6 ± 5 (6) 5 ± 5 (3)   − 2.72 0.006
 Negative 16 ± 6 (15) 7 ± 6 (5)   − 9.01 < 0.001
 General 19 ± 10 (18) 10 ± 9 (8)   − 6.37 < 0.001
CGI-SCH mean ± SD (median)
 Total 14 ± 5 (14) 9 ± 4 (8)   − 7.79 < 0.001
 Positive 2.3 ± 1.3 (2) 1.8 ± 1.0 (1)   − 2.23 0.026
 Negative 3.8 ± 1.3 (4) 2.1 ± 1.2 (2)   − 8.10 < 0.001
 Depressive 2.3 ± 1.1 (2) 1.4 ± 0.6 (1)   − 6.73 < 0.001
 Cognitive 2.8 ± 1.1 (3) 1.8 ± 0.9 (2)   − 6.10 < 0.001
 Total severity of schizophrenia 3.2 ± 1.1 (3) 2.0 ± 1.0 (2)   − 7.35 < 0.001
 SDS mean ± SD (median) 15 ± 5 (15) 6 ± 6 (6)   − 8.99 < 0.001