Skip to main content

Table 2 Demographic and maternal bonding characteristics of the study population

From: Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study

  Smokers Non-smokers
Total Males Females Total Males Females
N 129 61 (47.3%) 68 (52.7%) 610 198 (32.5%) 412 (67.5%)
Age (M ± SD) 52.4 ± 12.8 52.0 ± 14.2 52.8 ± 11.4 22.4 ± 2.1 22.5 ± 2.3 22.3 ± 2.1
MB
Care (M ± SD) 27.0 ± 7.7 28.9 ± 6.2 25.3 ± 8.7b 30.3 ± 6.2 30.3 ± 5.4 30.2 ± 6.6
Protection (M ± SD) 14.6 ± 8.6 13.2 ± 8.1 15.8 ± 8.9 12.8 ± 7.6 13.4 ± 7.3 12.6 ± 7.7
AC 18.6% 21.7% 16.2% 26.9% 32.8% 24.0%b
OP 38.8% 48.3% 29.4%b 52.5% 50.0% 53.6%
ALC 27.1% 15.0% 38.2%b 14.9% 13.6% 15.5%
NP 15.5% 15.0% 16.2% 5.7% 3.5% 6.8%
HC/LC 57.4%/42.6% 70.0%/30.0% 45.6%/54.4%a 79.3%/20.7% 82.8%/17.2% 77.7%/22.3%
HOP/LOP 45.7%/54.3% 36.7%/63.3% 54.4%/45.6%b 41.8%/58.2% 46.5%/53.5% 39.6%/60.4%
  1. a,b Statistically significant difference between males and females, a<0.01, b<0.05)
  2. MB maternal bonding; AC affectionate constraint; OP optimal parenting; ALC affectionless control; NP neglectful parenting; HC high care; LC low care; HOP high overprotection; LOP low overprotection; M mean; SD standard deviation