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Table 3 Likelihood of undergoing a head/brain MRI or CT scan: logistic regression results*

From: Potential bias in testing for hyperprolactinemia and pituitary tumors in risperidone-treated patients: a claims-based study

  Odds ratio 95% CI p Value
Antipsychotic categories vs other typicals (excluded category):    
Risperidone (yes = 1) 0.812 0.770 to 0.855 < 0.0001
Clozapine (yes = 1) 0.976 0.853 to 1.116 0.7222
Olanzapine (yes = 1) 0.778 0.738 to 0.821 < 0.0001
Quetiapine (yes = 1) 0.901 0.851 to 0.954 0.0003
Ziprasidone (yes = 1) 0.828 0.750 to 0.913 0.0002
Haloperidol (yes = 1) 0.768 0.713 to 0.826 < 0.0001
Perphenazine (yes = 1) 0.709 0.626 to 0.803 < 0.0001
Hyperprolactinemia (inclusive of closely-related conditions*) during treatment (yes = 1) 1.781 1.354 to 2.343 < 0.0001
Interaction of antipsychotic and hyperprolactinemia:    
Risperidone × hyperprolactinemia 1.658 1.232 to 2.232 0.0009
Clozapine × hyperprolactinemia 0.572 0.243 to 1.343 0.1993
Olanzapine × hyperprolactinemia 0.974 0.701 to 1.352 0.8748
Quetiapine × hyperprolactinemia 1.261 0.912 to 1.744 0.1613
Ziprasidone × hyperprolactinemia 1.663 1.057 to 2.615 0.0278
Haloperidol × hyperprolactinemia 1.157 0.741 to 1.805 0.5213
Perphenazine × hyperprolactinemia 1.237 0.568 to 2.696 0.5925
Duration of antipsychotic treatment episode, months 1.034 1.032 to 1.035 < 0.0001
Censored treatment episode (yes = 1) 0.746 0.723 to 0.770 < 0.0001
Age 1.018 1.017 to 1.018 < 0.0001
Male gender (yes = 1) 0.965 0.936 to 0.995 0.0217
Skull or brain injury 6 months prior to or during treatment (yes = 1) 4.956 4.672 to 5.258 < 0.0001
Skull neoplasm 6 months prior to or during treatment (yes = 1) 2.097 1.842 to 2.388 < 0.0001
Brain neoplasm 6 months prior to or during treatment (yes = 1) 8.630 7.687 to 9.689 < 0.0001
Used another antipsychotic within 6 months prior to treatment (yes = 1) 0.944 0.913 to 0.975 0.0005
Concurrent use of other atypical antipsychotic, ratio of days supply to index antipsychotic days supply 1.120 1.068 to 1.174 < 0.0001
Concurrent use of other typical antipsychotic, ratio of days supply to index antipsychotic days supply 1.145 1.075 to 1.220 < 0.0001
Diagnosis:    
Schizophrenia (yes = 1) 1.023 0.989 to 1.057 0.1845
Affective psychoses (yes = 1) 1.429 1.386 to 1.474 < 0.0001
Other psychoses (yes = 1) 2.110 2.047 to 2.174 < 0.0001
Other non-psychotic mental disorders (yes = 1) 1.822 1.758 to 1.888 < 0.0001
Health coverage vs fee for service (excluded category):    
Medicaid (yes = 1) 1.476 1.406 to 1.550 < 0.0001
HMO (yes = 1) 1.084 1.024 to 1.148 0.0053
  1. Number of observations with event: 25,343; number of observations without event: 172,583.
  2. *Conditions closely related to hyperprolactinemia include gynecomastia, galactorrhea, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, and dysmenorrhea.
  3. CI, confidence interval; CT, computed tomography; HMO, health maintenance organization; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging.