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Table 1 Patient characteristics by antipsychotic category

From: Potential bias in testing for hyperprolactinemia and pituitary tumors in risperidone-treated patients: a claims-based study

  Clozapine Risperidone Olanzapine Quetiapine Ziprasidone Haloperidol Perphenazine Other typicals
Number of treatment episodes 2,039 63,878 56,138 36,857 7,183 10,743 2,956 18,132
Duration of treatment, mean (SD), mo 16.0 (13.8) 10.5 (9.9) 9.9 (9.8) 9.7 (8.9) 7.1 (5.5) 9.8 (9.9) 10.2 (9.7) 9.5 (9.4)
Age, mean (SD), years 45 (16) 44 (25) 46 (21) 41 (20) 36 (16) 53 (21) 52 (19) 50 (18)
Males, % 54.4 46.3 45.3 39.4 41.8 46.5 36.7 40.2
With diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia during treatment, % 0.25 0.44 0.09 0.17 0.25 0.18 0.27 0.25
With prolactin test during treatment, % 1.52 2.06 1.15 1.41 1.84 0.94 1.05 1.08
With potentially prolactin-related symptoms during treatment, %* 9.1 7.1 6.5 7.9 7.9 6.0 7.1 7.0
With head/brain MRI or CT scan during treatment, % 16.8 12.1 11.4 11.9 8.5 13.8 11.6 13.7
With skull/brain injury or neoplasm 6 months prior to or during treatment, %† 4.17 3.94 4.11 3.87 2.28 8.02 2.64 6.48
With diagnosis of non-malignant pituitary tumor during treatment, %         
Benign 0.15 0.13 0.05 0.06 0.11 0.08 0.03 0.07
Uncertain behavior 0.00 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.04
Unspecified 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.10
Malignant 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.03
Used another antipsychotic within 6 months prior to treatment, % 71.8 30.2 37.0 50.7 74.7 54.0 46.9 71.8
Concurrent use of other atypical antipsychotic, ratio of days supply to index antipsychotic days supply, mean (SD) 0.32 (0.41) 0.09 (0.25) 0.10 (0.25) 0.16 (0.32) 0.27 (0.39) 0.43 (0.45) 0.30 (0.42) 0.27 (0.40)
Concurrent use of other typical antipsychotic, ratio of days supply to index antipsychotic days supply, mean (SD) 0.16 (0.32) 0.05 (0.18) 0.07 (0.22) 0.07 (0.23) 0.08 (0.23) 0.04 (0.17) 0.05 (0.19) 0.07 (0.22)
Diagnoses, %:         
Schizophrenia 84.4 24.9 30.3 27.5 42.5 52.2 38.3 38.4
Affective psychoses 46.2 50.7 57.1 63.4 64.1 39.0 52.4 40.2
Other psychoses 43.3 37.2 34.2 30.1 26.7 49.8 38.5 28.9
Other non-psychotic mental disorders 66.8 69.3 69.1 74.2 70.1 61.2 61.5 62.4
Health coverage:         
Medicaid 75.6 64.0 62.4 62.5 55.4 75.0 71.9 73.6
HMO 12.5 20.9 19.8 18.0 20.5 15.4 14.7 14.3
Other health coverage 11.9 15.1 17.8 19.5 24.1 9.6 13.4 12.1
  1. *Gynecomastia, galactorrhea, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, infertility-male-hypospermatogenesis, infertility-female-pituitary/hypothalamic, impotence-organic, psychosexual dysfunction, genitourinary malfunctions arising from mental factors, and alopecia.
  2. † Based on following International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes: 851.xx to 854.xx, 900.82, 900.89 and 900.9 for brain or intracranial injury; 801.xx to 804.xx for skull injury; 191.xx, 198.3, 225.0 to 225.2, 237.5, and 239.6 for brain neoplasm and 170.9, 198.5, 213.9, 238.0 and 239.2 for skull neoplasm.
  3. CT, computed tomography, HMO, health maintenance organization; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; SD, standard deviation.