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Table 1 Characteristics (PICOS) of the articles included in the review

From: Electroconvulsive therapy use in adolescents: a systematic review

Author (publication year) Patient Intervention Comparator Outcome Study design
Gedge et al. [11] (2012) Age 18 or older ECT and rTMS Absent Serum BDNF may not be a biomarker of ECT or rTMS treatment response Prospective cohort
Garg et al. [12] (2011) Age 16 to 65 ECT Absent Yes Prospective cohort
Rolim-neto et al. [2] (2011) Children and adolescents - Absent Child depression Literature review
Shoirah and Hamoda [13] (2011) Adolescents ECT Absent - Literature review
Wachtel et al. [6] (2011) Children and adolescents ECT Absent Efficacy rate of 63% for depression Literature review
Baeza et al. [7] (2010) Age 13 to 17 Evaluation before, after and 6 months after ECT Absent ECT is safe and effective treatment for SSD Retrospective cohort
Consoli et al. [14] (2010) Children and adolescents ECT Absent - Literature review
Antunes et al. [15] (2009) - ECT Absent 50 to 80% Literature review
Hazell [1] (2009) Children and adolescents Various Absent No article about ECT met the including criteria Systematic review
Moher et al. [9] (2009) - - - PRISMA statement Review
Baghai and Moller [16] (2008) - ECT Absent ECT is treatment proven to be a highly effective treatment option depression Literature review
Feliu et al. [17] (2008) Age 19 to 96 ECT Absent Yes Series of cases
Lévy-Rueff et al. [18] (2008) Age 30 to 67 ECT Absent Moderate efficacy of M-ECT on schizophrenia Retrospective cohort
Arshad et al. [19] (2007) Age 16 and above Questionnaire about ECT Absent Low acceptability of ECT Cross-sectional study
Blaj et al. [20] (2007) - ECT Absent Questionnaire to psychiatrists Exploratory field research
Datka et al. [21] (2007) - ECT Only drugs Only temporally affects working memory function Prospective cohort
Prakash et al. [22] (2006) Adults ECT Absent Donepezil improves recovery time Triple blind prospective cohort
Salleh et al. [23] (2006) - ECT Absent Efficacy and safety of ECT on depression treatment Literature review
Stein et al. [24] (2006) Children and adolescents ECT Absent - Literature review
Zaw [25] (2006) Children and adolescents ECT Absent - Literature review
Sienaert et al. [26] (2005) Adults and aged ECT Absent ECT patients have memory complaints, but it is not related to satisfaction with treatment Exploratory field research
Ghaziuddin et al. [27] (2004) Adolescents ECT Absent Mood disorders have a high rate of response (75% to 100%) Literature review
Segal et al. [28] (2004) Age 13 ECT Absent Full symptom resolution Case report
Bloch et al. [29] (2001) Age 13 to 19 ECT Absent 58% remission Retrospective cohort
Daly et al. [30] (2001) Average group age of 58.5 and 55.8 years old ECT Absent Yes Prospective cohort
Cohen et al. [31] (2000) Adolescents aged less than 19 years old ECT Only drugs Cognitive functions similar to non-ECT Retrospective cohort
Ghaziuddin et al. [32] (1999) Age 16 ECT Absent Clinical improvement, but no significant change in depression score Case report
Thuppal and Fink [33] (1999) Adolescents and adults ECT Absent ECT successful after pharmacotherapy failure on mental retardation Series of cases
Kutcher and Robertson [34] (1995) Age 16 to 22 ECT Absent Yes Prospective cohort
Calev [35] (1994) - ECT - Trends on ECT treatment Literature review
Parmar [36] (1993) Children and adolescents, psychiatrists ECT Absent ECT was less useful in child and adolescent psychotic depression Questionnaire
Schneeklot et al. [37] (1993) Adolescents ECT Absent ECT reduced or eliminated symptoms Retrospective case review
APA [38] (1990) Various ECT Absent Yes Literature review
Paillère-Martinot et al. [39] (1990) Adolescents ECT Absent Yes Comparative study