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Table 1 PTSD Prevalence and HTQ total score

From: Gender, trauma type, and PTSD prevalence: a re-analysis of 18 nordic convenience samples

Study * Exposure N Prevalence of PTSD N (%) PTSD M (SD) effect size HTQ total M (SD) effect size
  Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female d r Male Female d r
Disaster and accidents 960 1435 2395 139 (14.5) 476 (33.2) 615 (25.7) 0.1 (0.4) 0.3 (0.5) −0.45 −0.22 49.1 (17.4) 63.5 (16.9) −0.84 −0.39
Earthquake victims [5] 33 40 73 3 (9.1) 6 (15.0) 9 (12.3) 0.1 (0.3) 0.2 (0.4) −0.18 −0.09 42.7 (14.1) 48.0 (13.1) −0.39 −0.19
Explosion affected residents [6] 233 236 469 18 (7.7) 41 (17.4) 59 (12.6) 0.1 (0.3) 0.2 (0.4) −0.29 −0.15 46.3 (11.5) 53.4 (13.5) −0.57 −0.27
Rescue personnel at explosion [7] 398 28 426 7 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 7 (1.6) 0.0 (0.1) 0.0 (0.0) 0.19 0.09 38.4 (8.4) 40.6 (9.6) −0.25 −0.12
Whiplash victims [8] 296 1131 1427 111 (37.5) 429 (37.9) 540 (37.8) 0.4 (0.5) 0.4 (0.5) −0.01 −0.00 66.3 (17.3) 66.7 (16.2) −0.02 −0.01
Loss 501 804 1305 65 (13.0) 192 (23.9) 257 (19.7) 0.1 (0.3) 0.2 (0.4) −0.28 −0.14 27.6 (8.2) 31.7 (9.4) −0.47 −0.23
Cancer patient relatives** [9] 61 175 236 23 (37.7) 78 (44.6) 101 (42.8) 0.4 (0.5) 0.4 (0.5) −0.14 −0.07 35.1 (7.1) 37.9 (8.4) −0.35 −0.17
Elderly bereaved [10] 20 38 58 3 (15.0) 16 (42.1) 19 (32.8) 0.2 (0.4) 0.4 (0.5) −0.62 −0.30 43.4 (13.5) 66.4 (20.8) −1.31 −0.55
Elderly bereaved (prospective study) [11] 113 183 296 15 (13.3) 31 (16.9) 46 (15.5) 0.1 (0.3) 0.2 (0.4) −0.10 −0.05 49.5 (12.0) 52.0 (13.5) −0.20 −0.10
Parents who have lost an infant *** [12] 43 55 98 3 (7.0) 15 (27.3) 18 (18.4) 0.1 (0.3) 0.3 (0.4) −0.55 −0.27 50.3 (12.5) 62.7 (14.1) −0.93 −0.42
Parents who have lost an infant **** [13] 264 353 617 21 (8.0) 52 (14.7) 73 (11.8) 0.1 (0.3) 0.1 (0.4) −0.21 −0.11 47.0 (13.0) 53.5 (15.9) −0.45 −0.22
Chronic disease 179 368 547 11 (6.1) 30 (8.2) 41 (7.5) 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.3) −0.08 −0.04 46.0 (12.8) 51.3 (14.0) −0.39 −0.19
Families with chronically ill children [14] 32 53 85 5 (15.6) 7 (13.2) 12 (14.1) 0.2 (0.4) 0.1 (0.3) 0.07 0.03 48.2 (11.0) 50.9 (12.9) −0.23 −0.11
Parents of chronically ill children [15] 147 315 462 6 (4.1) 23 (7.3) 29 (6.3) 0.0 (0.2) 0.1 (0.3) −0.14 −0.07 45.6 (13.2) 51.3 (14.2) −0.42 −0.20
Non-malignant disease 196 256 452 17 (8.7) 46 (18.0) 63 (13.9) 0.1 (0.3) 0.2 (0.4) −0.28 −0.14 47.7 (13.5) 54.9 (17.2) −0.47 −0.23
Overweight persons [16] 12 122 134 4 (33.3) 29 (23.8) 33 (24.6) 0.3 (0.5) 0.2 (0.4) 0.21 0.10 59.9 (16.5) 58.1 (17.8) 0.11 0.05
Paraplegics [17] 147 69 216 10 (6.8) 5 (7.2) 15 (6.9) 0.1 (0.3) 0.1 (0.3) −0.02 −0.01 47.5 (13.1) 50.5 (14.7) −0.21 −0.11
Parents of prematurely born children [18] 18 40 58 0 7 (17.5) 7 (12.1) 0.0 (0.0) 0.2 (0.4) −0.64 −0.31 38.0 (5.9) 49.8 (18.6) −0.85 −0.39
Survivors of childhood cancer [19] 19 25 44 3 (15.8) 5 (20.0) 8 (18.2) 0.2 (0.4) 0.2 (0.4) −0.11 −0.05 50.5 (13.1) 59.8 (14.9) −0.66 −0.31
Violence 265 256 521 45 (17.0) 54 (21.1) 99 (19.0) 0.2 (0.4) 0.2 (0.4) −0.10 −0.05 52.3 (18.1) 57.0 (16.6) −0.27 −0.13
Assault victims (Aarhus) [20] 138 50 188 42 (30.4) 16 (32.0) 58 (30.9) 0.3 (0.5) 0.3 (0.5) −0.03 −0.02 57.7 (21.0) 58.5 (16.7) −0.04 −0.02
Knife homicide at a Danish gymnasium [21] 107 172 279 1 (0.9) 25 (14.5) 26 (9.3) 0.0 (0.0) 0.1 (0.4) −0.54 −0.26 45.0 (9.4) 55.6 (15.5) −0.83 −0.38
Robbery victims [22] 20 34 54 2 (10.0) 13 (38.2) 15 (27.8) 0.1 (0.3) 0.4 (0.5) −0.69 −0.32 54.8 (18.2) 62.4 (20.4) −0.39 −0.19
Any trauma 2101 3119 5220 277 (13.2) 798 (25.6) 1075 (20.6) 0.1 (0.3) 0.3 (0.4) −0.32 −0.16 27.1 (9.6) 33.0 (9.9) −0.60 −0.29
  1. Note: N: number of participants; SD: standard deviation; d: Cohen’s d (effect size); r: Pearson’s r (effect size); HTQ: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire; PTSD: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. * In the study column, the parentheses refer to the studies in the reference list. ** In this study only data from the HTQ16 was available. The HTQ16 contains the first 16 items of the HTQ. *** Prospective data gathered through a Danish hospital. **** Data gathered through the National Danish Society of Infant Death.