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Table 3 Mean differences in General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) scores between baseline (BL) and end of training (ET) assessments by levels of each independent variable (n = 78)

From: Education in mental health promotion and its impact on the participants' attitudes and perceived mental health

GHQ-28 subscales Changea F (df = 1,76) P valueb
  Mean (SE) Mean (SE)   
Sex Men Women   
Somatic symptoms -0.6 (0.4) -0.8 (0.5) 0.02 0.895
Anxiety/insomnia -1.0 (0.6) -1.4 (0.6) 0.08 0.778
Social dysfunction -0.8 (0.6) -1.2 (0.6) 0.49 0.487
Severe depression -0.6 (0.4) -0.4 (0.3) 0.24 0.623
Age ≤ 39 ≥ 40   
Somatic symptoms -0.7 (0.6) -0.8 (0.4) 0.10 0.750
Anxiety/insomnia -1.7 (0.7) -0.8 (0.6) 4.33 0.042
Social dysfunction -1.1 (0.5) -0.9 (0.6) 0.19 0.664
Severe depression -0.8 (0.3) -0.1 (0.4) 0.16 0.687
Type of education Theoretical Exact sciences   
Somatic symptoms -0.8 (0.5) -0.7 (0.5) 0.03 0.859
Anxiety/insomnia -1.0 (0.6) -1.5 (0.7) 1.61 0.208
Social dysfunction -0.9 (0.6) -1.2 (0.5) 0.09 0.771
Severe depression -0.4 (0.4) -0.5 (0.3) 0.04 0.844
Previous MHP training experience Yes No   
Somatic symptoms -0.9 (0.4) -0.6 (0.5) 0.39 0.533
Anxiety/insomnia -1.3 (0.4) -1.2 (0.7) 0.43 0.516
Social dysfunction -1.8 (0.5) -0.5 (0.6) 4.41 0.038
Severe depression -0.4 (0.3) -0.4 (0.3) 1.09 0.301
Marital status Married Unmarried   
Somatic symptoms -0.7 (0.3) -0.8 (0.6) 0.01 0.964
Anxiety/insomnia -1.1 (0.5) -1.4 (0.8) 0.02 0.878
Social dysfunction -1.1 (0.4) -0.9 (0.7) 0.04 0.849
Severe depression -0.5 (0.3) -0.4 (0.4) 0.45 0.507
Years of education ≤ 17 ≥ 18   
Somatic symptoms -1.0 (0.6) -0.5 (0.4) 0.76 0.386
Anxiety/insomnia -1.9 (0.7) -0.6 (0.5) 3.97 0.049
Social dysfunction -0.5 (0.7) -1.5 (0.4) 0.71 0.401
Severe depression -0.4 (0.4) -0.4 (0.3) 0.08 0.785
  1. achange from BL to ET.
  2. bP value for interaction effect with time (analysis of multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA)).
  3. MHP = mental health promotion.